نقش و کارکرد گروه‌های پادسامانه‌ای (ضد سیستمی) در سامانۀ بازدارندگی غرب آسیا (کاربست دیدگاه غربی ـ امریکایی در تکوین نظم بومی منطقه‌ای)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

گروه روابط بین الملل، دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

نظریة بازدارندگی کلاسیک محدود به توضیح ثبات در روابط ابرقدرت­های دارای همپایگی راهبردی در سطح جهانی است، اما این نظریه قادر به تبیین عملکرد بازدارندگی در مناطق پیچیده و آشوبناک نیست. به‌عبارتی، در دوران جنگ سرد سامانۀ بازدارندگی تنها در روابط ابرقدرت­ها، درقالب بازدارندگی هسته­ای عمل می­کرد و به‌تبع‌آن انتقال تعارضات به مناطق پایین­دستی، ازجمله منطقۀ غرب آسیا را به‌دنبال داشت. اما پس از عصر جنگ سرد شاهد عملکرد سامانۀ بازدارندگی منطقۀ غرب آسیا، به‌عنوان یک نظم منطقه­ای پیچیده و آشوب هستیم که درقالب نظریة بازدارندگی پیچیده قابل­تبیین است. سامانۀ بازدارندگی پیچیده شامل زیرسامانه­ها و کنش‌گران متعدد است و یکی از مهم­ترین این کنش‌گران «گروه­های پادسامانه‌ای» است که از نقش تعیین‌کننده‌‌ای در زیرسامانه­های بازدارندگی در منطقۀ غرب آسیا برخوردارند. این بعد در ادبیات روابط بین‌الملل و مطالعات منطقه‌ای مغفول مانده است. لذا سؤال پژوهش حاضر این است که نقش و کارکرد «گروه‌های پادسامانه‌ای» در سامانۀ بازدارندگی نظم منطقه­ای غرب آسیا چیست؟ فرضیة این پژوهش این است که «گروه­های پادسامانه‌ای»، موجب عملکرد سامانۀ بازدارندگی منطقۀ غرب آسیا، در شرایط عدم تقارن و ناهمجنسی قدرت می­شوند». براین‌اساس، هدف پژوهش حاضر، ارائة مدلی نظری در زمینة نقش« گروه­های پادسامانه‌ای» در سامانۀ بازدارندگی پیچیده، درجهت کمک به غنای ادبیات نظری روابط بین­الملل است. این پژوهش با استفاده از روش علّی ساختاری ـ کارکردی ساماندهی و تدوین شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


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